Originally, I wanted to write a post on Baranxe’i sandhi, but I seem unable to write the rules down in a way that makes sense outside of my head (and it’s difficult to disentangle diachronic rules that are important to analyse inherited compounds and derived forms from synchronic rules which govern suffixes and clitics), so I thought I’d make a post about numerals in Baranxe’i instead.
Because who loves numerals? This guy does.
Numerals – Aŋurana
Baranxe’i employs a decimal counting system.
Among cardinals, Baranxe’i makes a distinction between numerals as used for counting (which are also the number names), and numerals as used to indicate the quantity of a noun.
To indicate the quantitiy of a noun, the adjective forms of the numbers have to be used (pronunciation only given for the stem).
So, if one counts ewes in Baranxe’i, one poins their finger at them and goes “am, aþar, eik, śi…”, but if one talks about them, it’s “ma koða / aþrava koðava / eikaja koðaja / śaja koðaja /…”
The order of higher numbers goes from largest to smallest, with only the final number appearing in its full form. Other numbers use a compound form:
|two||aþar / aþr
|four||śi / ś
|seven||źu / źv|
|eight||hā / hāj|
|ten||tain / taint
In rows with two versions, the first is found in front of consonants, the second in front of vowels.
Thus, 11, 12, 13, 14… are taintam, tainmā / taintaþar, tainaþrā / tainteik, tainteikā / tainśi, tainśā …
The decades (beyond 10) are aþartainen / eiktainen / śitainen / airtainen…
21, 31, 41, 51 are aþartaintam, aþartainmā / eiktaintam, eiktainmā / śitaintam, śitainmā / airtaintam, airtainmā…
Hundred is biler, bilrā, and thence (am)biler, (am)bilrā / aþarbiler, aþarbilrā… The compound form of biler is -bīl-.
And for example, six hundred sixty-six is hazbīlhaztainhaz, hazbīlhaztainhazā.
Finally, thousand is aŋan, which is its only form. And 234 567 is aþarbīleiktainśaŋanairbīlhaztainźu, aþarbīleiktainśaŋanairbīlhaztainźvā.
In most non-formal spoken variants of both SB and Baranxe’i dialects, the thousands are mentioned separately, however:
aþarbīleiktainśaŋan ā airbīlhaztainźu – two hundred thirty-four thousand and five hundred sixty-seven
Ordinals are in general formed by adding -kā to the counting numeral.
first star is āŋu feilu (from am + kā > aŋkā > āŋā).
second woman is aþarka īna (from aþar + kā > aþarkā).
third man is ēiki alē’i (from eik + kā > eikkā > ēikā).
And so on. There are three exceptions, however:
am / ma has an alternative form māku derived from the adjective numeral. It declines the first part of the compound, the -ku is invariable:
muku feilu, miku alē’i, maka īna
> muŋu feilun, mīŋu alē’i, māŋa īna (all ACC)
tainen forms its ordinal via the compound form: taiŋā.
biler forms its ordinal via its adjective stem, *bilrkā > bilarkā.
Ordinals can either precede or follow the nouns they modify, although the preceding form is preferred for everything but temporal expressions. For something like first/second/third time, the form hēmas muku/aþarku/ēiku is preferred.
The multiplicatives are formed by the formula “NUM-INSTR hēmās/hēmāśu/hēmāś“, thus rendering them literally “one time, two times, three times, etc.”.
Many regiolects simply use the respective numeral in the instrumental, whereas others prefix the form of hēmas with a number.
mus hēmās – mus / asam – muhēmās / āŋēmās
aþruśvu hēmāśu – aþruś(vu) – aþarhēvāś(u)
eikuś hēmāś – eikuś – eixēmāś
In formal SB, only the first construction is valid, however.
Reproductives can be formed by suffixing the comparison suffix -sinēn to the counting numeral.
Partitive numerals are formed by suffixing -śanix(ā) to the ordinal adjective stem.
Thus, for third, we find ēikśānix(ā), as in ēikśānix tśējutu (a third of beer, a traditional measurement) or ēikśānixu mimi’amuruvur (a third of the monthly income). The form N + N-GEN is preferred in SB.
An exception is half – tśeran/tśernā is not etymologically related to aþar.
And yes, I realise there are a couple numerals missing, but I still haven’t found a satisfying way of expressing collective or ranking numerals. So expect a Numerals 2 post at some point.