Proto-Aketamsei: Numerals

And because today marks my 50 clicks, a celebratory second post 😀 !

So, last time, we took a look at the numerals of Baranxe’i. I meant to include some diachronics, too, but I completely forgot, so here we go, the number 1 – 10 in Proto-Aketamsei (PA), Standard Baranxe’i (SB) and Standard Asuāneica (SA):

 

PA

 

SB

 

SA

one m̩ ɑːm mɒː ˈuːwu mɛː
two ɑt̪ʰr̩ ɑːθɐɾ ˈɑːθɾɒ ˈɑʂɻ̍ ˈɑʂɻ̍
three keˈiːk eɪ̯k ˈeɪkɒ ciːk ciːcɛː
four tiː ʃiː ʃɒː ciː sɛː
five ɑˈiːɾ ɑɪ̯ɾ ˈɑɪ̯rɒ ˈɑːɻʔi ˈɑːʔirɛː
six qʰɑd hɑːz ˈhɑːzɒ xɑɟ xɑɟɛː
seven dʱuː ʒuː ʒβɒː zuː zʷɛː
eight qʰɑwɢʱ hɒː ˈhɒːjɒ xɑʊʁ xɑʊʁɛː
nine tleɪːdʱ leɪ̯ð ˈleɪ̯ðɒ ʈʂɛɪːʐ ʈʂɛɪːʐɛː
ten t̯ɑɪnm̩ ˈtɑɪ̯nən ˈtɑɪ̯nən ˈt̯ɑɪɳu ˈt̯ɑɪɳːeː

For ease of comparison, all entries are in IPA instead of their respective transcriptions.

Baranxe’i

The oldest written standard for the Baranxe’i family is Classical Old Baranxe’i (COB), the dialect of the city of [ɢʱṇd] (modern Jand [jɑːnd]) and part of the Northern dialects. Its numbers were the following:

Noun Adjective
meː
ˈɑθɑd ˈɑθɾeː
kiˈjiːk kiˈjiːkeː
tsiː tsʲeː
aˈjiːd aˈjiːreː
qʰɑdz qʰadzeː
dzʱu qzʱweː
χɑwɢ χɑwɢeː
d̪l̪eiːð d̪l̪eiːðeː
tɑɪːn tɑɪːneː

While this table shows some typical features of the Baranxe’i family (such as early desyllabification of [r̩] > [ar] and [t̪ʰ d̪ʱ] > [θ ð] as the earliest loss of aspirated stops), it is in some aspects archaic in comparison to other dialects of the same period (such as retention of syllabic [m̩]) or that are only found in Northern dialects (such as the shift of word-final [r] > [d]).

By comparison, the Central dialects had the following by the Late Old Baranxe’i stage:

Noun Adjective
ɑm me
ˈɑθɑɾ ˈɑθɾe
eiːk ˈeɪːke
tsiː tsʰe
ɑiːr ˈɑɪːre
χɑdz ˈχɑdze
dzʱu dzʱwe
χɑwʁ ˈχɑwʁe
(ts)leɪːð ˈ(ts)leɪːðe
ˈtɑiːnɑn ˈtɑiːnɑn

They have completed the loss of syllabic sonorants in favour of [ɑɾ ɑm ɑn] (+ [ɑl]), the loss of initial [k] before front vowels and most are simplifying initial stop+liquid clusters.

tsʰe goes back to earlier tsʲe from *tsie, being an inherited form that underwent the merger of aspirated and palatalised consonants.

The Middle Baranxe’i stage is relatively close to the modern one:

Noun Adjective
ɑːm meː
ˈɑːθɐɾ ˈɑːθɾə
ei(ː)k ˈeɪ(ː)kə
ʃiː ʃeː
ɑi(ː)r ˈɑɪ(ː)rə
χɑːz ˈχɑːzə
ʒuː ʒβə
hɒː(j) ˈhɒːjə
leɪ(ː)ð ˈleɪ(ː)ðə
ˈtɑi(ː)nən ˈtɑɪ(ː)nən

We see the emergence of the stress-length system and the shortening of long diphthongs.

ʃiː is not a direct descendant from tsiː (which should have rendered *siː), but has been brought closer to the adjectival form by analogy.

The shift from Middle to Early Modern Baranxe’i saw the replacement of the former general adjective marker -e (by then reduced to [ə]) with [ɒ], giving us the modern forms.

Asuāneica

This table shows the pre-OA stage, which places it a few centuries before COB.

uːm meː
ɑt̪ʰr̩ ɑt̪ʰreː
kʲiːk > tʃiːk kʲiːtʃeː > tʃiːtʃeː
tsiː tsʲeː > tsːeː
ɑʔiːr ɑʔiːreː
qʰɑdz qʰɑdzeː
dzːuː dzːweː
qʰɑwɢʱ qʰɑwɢʱeː
tsleiːd̪ʱ tsleiːd̪ʱeː
t̯ɑɪnum t̯ɑɪnmeː

It shows much earlier affrication of the alveolar series and loss of the syllabic nasals (with [m̩] > [um]), and the palatalisation of velars before front vowels. It fills the original hiatus in five with an epenthetic [ʔ].

The next table shows the OA stage, about inbetween COB and Late Old Baranxe’i:

ũː mɛː
ɑθɹ̩ ɑθɹɛː
tʃiːk tʃiːtʃɛː
tʃiː tsɛː
ɑʔɹiː ɑʔiːɹɛː
χɑdʒ χɑdʒɛː
dzuː dzwɛː
χɑʊʁ χɑʊʁɛː
tʃɹɛiːð tʃɹɛiːðɛː
t̯ɑɪnũ t̯ɑɪnmɛː

Here, we see some very typical features of Asuāneica: the loss of final m and nasalisation of the preceding vowel, the lowering of [e] > [ɛ] and the merger of /l/ and /r/ into an approximant [ɹ].

[ɑʔɹiː] is a metathesised form of earlier [ɑʔiːr].

The transition to MA is vital on the way to features nowadays considered almost stereotypically Asuāneica:

mɛː
ɑθɻ̍ > ɑʂɻ ɑθɻɛː > ɑʂɻɛː
cçiːk cçiːcçɛː
cçiː sɛː
ɑɻʔiː ɑʔiːrɛː
χɑɟʝ χɑɟʝɛː
zuː zʷɛː
χɑʊʁ χɑʊʁɛː
ʈʂɻɛɪːð ʈʂɻɛɪːðɛː
t̯ɑɪnu t̯ɑɪnmɛː

The shift to a retroflex r leads to massive changes in surrounding coronal consonants.

Furthermore, while the affricates [tʃ dʒ] shift to [cç ɟʝ], the affricates [ts dz] get simplified to [s z], which leads to the perceived reversion of the Baranxe’i sequence [s z ʃ ʒ] versus Asuāneica  [c(ç) ɟ(ʝ) s z].

And thus, we arrive at the modern forms:

ˈuːwu meː
ˈɑʂɻ̍ ˈɑʂɻ̍
ciːk ciːceː
ciː seː
ˈɑːɻʔi ˈɑːʔireː
xɑɟ xɑɟeː
zuː zʷeː
xɑʊʁ xɑʊʁeː
ʈʂeɪːʐ ʈʂeɪːʐeː
ˈt̯ɑɪɳu ˈt̯ɑɪɳːeː

The dialect on which Standard Asuāneica  is based has also simplified the palatal affricates. The cluster of retroflex affricate + /r/ has dropped the rhotic.

One was reduplicated to uːwu.

And that’s how the modern ordinal numbers came to be.

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