And because today marks my 50 clicks, a celebratory second post 😀 !
So, last time, we took a look at the numerals of Baranxe’i. I meant to include some diachronics, too, but I completely forgot, so here we go, the number 1 – 10 in Proto-Aketamsei (PA), Standard Baranxe’i (SB) and Standard Asuāneica (SA):
For ease of comparison, all entries are in IPA instead of their respective transcriptions.
The oldest written standard for the Baranxe’i family is Classical Old Baranxe’i (COB), the dialect of the city of [ɢʱṇd] (modern Jand [jɑːnd]) and part of the Northern dialects. Its numbers were the following:
While this table shows some typical features of the Baranxe’i family (such as early desyllabification of [r̩] > [ar] and [t̪ʰ d̪ʱ] > [θ ð] as the earliest loss of aspirated stops), it is in some aspects archaic in comparison to other dialects of the same period (such as retention of syllabic [m̩]) or that are only found in Northern dialects (such as the shift of word-final [r] > [d]).
By comparison, the Central dialects had the following by the Late Old Baranxe’i stage:
They have completed the loss of syllabic sonorants in favour of [ɑɾ ɑm ɑn] (+ [ɑl]), the loss of initial [k] before front vowels and most are simplifying initial stop+liquid clusters.
tsʰe goes back to earlier tsʲe from *tsie, being an inherited form that underwent the merger of aspirated and palatalised consonants.
The Middle Baranxe’i stage is relatively close to the modern one:
We see the emergence of the stress-length system and the shortening of long diphthongs.
ʃiː is not a direct descendant from tsiː (which should have rendered *siː), but has been brought closer to the adjectival form by analogy.
The shift from Middle to Early Modern Baranxe’i saw the replacement of the former general adjective marker -e (by then reduced to [ə]) with -ā [ɒ], giving us the modern forms.
This table shows the pre-OA stage, which places it a few centuries before COB.
|kʲiːk > tʃiːk||kʲiːtʃeː > tʃiːtʃeː|
|tsiː||tsʲeː > tsːeː|
It shows much earlier affrication of the alveolar series and loss of the syllabic nasals (with [m̩] > [um]), and the palatalisation of velars before front vowels. It fills the original hiatus in five with an epenthetic [ʔ].
The next table shows the OA stage, about inbetween COB and Late Old Baranxe’i:
Here, we see some very typical features of Asuāneica: the loss of final m and nasalisation of the preceding vowel, the lowering of [e] > [ɛ] and the merger of /l/ and /r/ into an approximant [ɹ].
[ɑʔɹiː] is a metathesised form of earlier [ɑʔiːr].
The transition to MA is vital on the way to features nowadays considered almost stereotypically Asuāneica:
|ɑθɻ̍ > ɑʂɻ||ɑθɻɛː > ɑʂɻɛː|
The shift to a retroflex r leads to massive changes in surrounding coronal consonants.
Furthermore, while the affricates [tʃ dʒ] shift to [cç ɟʝ], the affricates [ts dz] get simplified to [s z], which leads to the perceived reversion of the Baranxe’i sequence [s z ʃ ʒ] versus Asuāneica [c(ç) ɟ(ʝ) s z].
And thus, we arrive at the modern forms:
The dialect on which Standard Asuāneica is based has also simplified the palatal affricates. The cluster of retroflex affricate + /r/ has dropped the rhotic.
One uː was reduplicated to uːwu.
And that’s how the modern ordinal numbers came to be.