Archive for category Phonology
Baranxe’i has eight fully phonemic vowels, which in Standard Baranxe’i have three main realisations: that in a stressed syllable (lengthened, iśñajatkanu, I), in an unstressed, non-final syllable (unchanged, mēźu, M), and in a final syllable (reduced, vimujatkanu, V).
These gives the following main vowels for SB:
/ / – I – M – V
/a/ – [ɑː] – [ɑ] – [ɐ]
/ɒ/ – [ɒː] – [ɒ] – [ɒ̆]
/e/ – [eː] – [e] – [ə]
/ɛ/ – [ɛː] – [ɛ] – [ɛ̆]
/i/ – [iː] – [i] – [ɪ]
/y/ – [yː] – [y] – [ʏ]
/o/ – [oː] – [o] – [ɤ]
/u/ – [uː] – [u] – [ɯ]
In addition, there is a marginal phonemic distinction between [u] and [ɯ], but due to its extremely limited appearance it is generally not counted.
The SB diphthongs are /aʊ̯ aɪ̯ eɪ̯ ɛɪ̯ oɪ̯/, of which /oɪ̯/ is extremely rare.
Baranxe’i has a consonant inventory of medium size, with four main series plus a marginal series, four ‘other’ consonants, and a few other marginal phones.
The four series are generally referred to as the labial, dental, alveolar and velar series. Each contains a voiced and a voiceless stop, a voiced and voiceless fricative, and a voiced nasal (with the exception of the alveolar series, which contains two voiced and two voiceless fricatives, or affricates):
Labial /p b ɸ β m/
Dental /t d θ ð n/
Alveolar /s z ʃ ʒ ɲ/ + /ts dz tʃ dʒ/
Velar /k g x ɣ ŋ/
The other consonants are the two liquids /r/ and /l/, /h/ and the glide /j/.
The marginal phonemes are the preaspirated stops /ʰp ʰt ʰs ʰk/ and the dental stop with nasal release /tⁿ/.